- Summary for quick revision during exams
- MCQs: Exercise
- MCQs: Extras
- Additional/extra questions & answers
INTRODUCTION to the chapter Power Resources: Energy is defined as a force that produces an activity or a capability for completing labour. Chemical energy (fossil fuels and wood), geothermal energy, tidal power, hydroelectric power, nuclear energy, solar energy, and wind energy are all used by humans to conduct work.
- Firewood and cow dung cake are two traditional sources of energy in rural India. According to estimates, these two sources generate 70% of the energy needed in rural communities.
- In the communities, the necessity for alternative energy sources has grown as the forest area has shrunk and the demand for dung for manure has increased.
- Light and heat, as well as the propulsion of vehicles and the operation of equipment, all require energy. The following are the several types of energy resources:
Conventional sources of energy
Coal: Coal is made up of decaying plant components that have been compacted for millions of years into a solid lump of nearly pure carbon. It is the most abundant fossil fuel on the planet. Depending on the degree of compression, as well as the depth and duration of burial, this fossil fuel can be found in a number of forms.
- The first step in the coal-making process was the production of peat. The peat was crushed beneath other layers over time. The peat was sucked dry, and methane was released into the sky. Thousands of years of burial and compression transformed peat into several types of coal, including lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite coal.
- One-third of the energy used throughout the world comes from coal. In addition to supplying fuel, coal is used in the production of many chemical products, including medicines and pesticides.
- Coal is a heavy and bulky material that turns to ash after use (i.e., when burned). As a result, if large industries or thermal power plants are placed on or near coal fields, the cost and difficulties of transporting this fuel are reduced to nearly nothing. Heavy industries and thermal power plants are located in or near coalfields for this reason.
Petroleum: This is fossil fuel in liquid form. To bring oil to the surface, wells are excavated or drilled on land or offshore. This crude oil is transported to refineries and converted into gasoline and petrochemicals.
- Petroleum refineries serve as a 'nodal industry' for the chemical, fertiliser, and synthetic textile industries because of the different by-products obtained during the refining process. It offers fuel for heating, lighting, and running machines and vehicles, as well as lubricants for machines and raw materials for the production of various products like plastics and chemicals.
- Sedimentary rocks are used to make this fuel. It produces very little smoke, no ash, and can be utilised to the very last drop.
- In terms of percentage of overall petroleum production in India, Mumbai High produces 63%, Assam 16%, and Gujarat 18%. Tamil Nadu, Arunachal Pradesh, and Andhra Pradesh all have some oil. In 2016-17, India produced 36.01 MTs of crude petroleum.
- Assam is India's oldest oil-producing state, located in north-eastern India. Naharkatiya, Moran-Hugrijan, and Digboi are three of the country's most important oil fields. Digboi, Numaligarh, Guwahati, and Bongaigaon in Assam, and Barauni in Bihar, process the oil from these fields. In the country, there are 18 oil refineries.
Natural Gas: Natural gas is a non-polluting energy source that can be found with or without petroleum. Natural gas has the advantage of not requiring processing as coal and oil do. Natural gas is ready for consumption once it has been purified of contaminants.
- It emits carbon dioxide when burned and burns hotter and cleaner than other fossil fuels. It is also less expensive. Electricity is also generated using natural gas. While natural gas offers numerous advantages, it also has a significant drawback: it is limited.
- This fuel is employed in the petrochemical sector as both an energy source and an industrial raw material.
- In 2016-17, India generated approximately 31.90 billion cubic metres of natural gas. Mumbai High produces more than 34% of the total, with 10% coming from Gujarat, 7% from Assam, and the rest coming from Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, and Rajasthan.
- LPG (liquified petroleum gas) for residential use and CNG (compressed natural gas) for vehicle use are two different types of gas (compressed natural gas).
Electricity: Electricity is a crucial element for a country's success and prosperity. Electricity has many applications in today's world, and its use is used as a measure of progress.
- The two main types of electrical energy are hydroelectricity and thermal electricity.
Nuclear or Atomic Energy: This is obtained from uranium and thorium. The structure of atoms is changed to produce this type of electricity. This causes energy to be released in the form of heat, which is then used to generate electricity.
- Tarapur (Maharashtra), Kalpakkam (Tamil Nadu), Rawatbhata (Rajasthan), Narora (Uttar Pradesh), Kakrapara (Gujarat), and Kaiga (Kaiga) are the six nuclear power plants in India (Karnataka).
Non-conventional sources of energy
New technologies were introduced throughout the 18th century's Industrial Revolution. In many ways, that century's burst of inventions was unmatched. Natural resources such as coal and oil were used in several of these innovations.
- The idea of these resources being finite and the environmental damage caused by their exploitation never occurred to anyone, either the inventors or succeeding generations. It is now more important than ever to take a fresh look at energy technologies.
- Rising oil and gas prices, as well as the possibility of future shortages, have raised concerns about the future security of energy sources. This, in turn, could have a negative impact on the country's economic growth.
- We must focus our attention on the plentiful renewable resources available in vast amounts, such as wind, sun, tidal, and biomass. Apart from being endless and inexhaustible, these sources of energy are pollution-free and clean energy.
Conservation of power resources
As the country's energy demand rises, it has become increasingly reliant on fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas. Rising oil and gas costs, as well as prospective shortages, have generated concerns about the future security of energy supply, which has major implications for the country's economic growth.
- Increased usage of fossil fuels has major environmental consequences. As a result, there is a pressing need to use renewable energy sources such as sun, wind, tide, biomass, and waste-to-energy. Non-conventional energy sources are what they're termed.
- India is one of the world's least energy-efficient countries. To deal with our limited resources, we must plan ahead and proceed with caution. We must design a long-term strategy for energy development and use.
- Promoting energy conservation and popularising the usage of renewable energy sources are two significant elements that must be targeted.
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) of Power Resources: Exercise
1. Which of the following is a conventional source of energy?
Answer: (a) coal
2. Which of the following is a conventional source of energy widely used in rural areas?
Answer: (b) Firewood
3. The gas supplied for use in households is called
Answer: (a) LPG
4. Which of the following is a clean energy resource?
Answer: (b) Natural gas
5. Which of the following is the most abundantly available fossil fuel in India?
Answer: (b) Coal
6. Which of the following is an environment-friendly fuel?
Answer: (c) Natural gas
Multiple choice questions (MCQs) of Power Resources: Extras
1. World's most abundant fossil fuel.
(a.Carbon, b. Petroleum, c. Natural gas, d. Coal)
Answer: A. Carbon
2. Hydroelectricity is produced by.
(a. Wind, b. Water, c. Lightning, d. Sound)
Answer: B. Water
3. The method used to produce solar energy is.
(a. Photovoltaic, b. Photodiode, c. Photoholic, d. None of the above)
Answer: A. Photovoltaic
4. Ocean tides are used to generate
(a. Heat, b. Light, c. Current, d. Electricity)
Answer: D. Electricity
5. Nagarcoil and Jaisalmer are known for effective use of
(a. Solar power, b. Electric power, c. Wind power, d. Thermal power)
Answer: C. Wind power
Additional/extra questions and answers/solutions of Power Resources
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1. Why is there a need to turn attention towards abundant renewable resources?
Answer: Rising prices of oil and gas and their shortage in future have brought to light certain uncertainties about the security of the energy supply in future. This in turn could have serious effects on the growth of national income. Thus, there is a need to turn attention towards abundant renewable resources.
2. How is coal formed?
Answer: The first step in the coal making process is the formation of peat. Over time, the peat is compacted beneath other deposits. Water is squeezed out of the peat and methane is expelled into the atmosphere. Over thousands of years, continual burial and compression caused the peat to change into the different grades of coal.
3. Why are heavy industries and thermal power stations located in or near the coalfields?
Answer: Coal is heavy and bulky material but after using it becomes ash. Hence, if heavy industries or thermal power stations are located on or near the coalfields the cost and problems of transportation of this fuel become almost negligible.
4. Give one advantage of Natural Gas?
Answer: One advantage of natural gas is that it does not require processing in its extraction. After being cleared of impurities, natural gas is ready for the consumer.
5. What are non-conventional sources of energy.
Answer: Non-conventional sources of energy are those which are abundant in nature and are eco-friendly. Non-conventional source of energy is pollution-free and are clear energy apart from being unlimited and inexhaustible.
Chapter 1: Rise of Nationalism in Europe
Chapter 2: Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Chapter 4: Trade and Globalisation
Chapter 5: Resources
Chapter 6: Power Resources
Chapter 7: Agriculture