This article gives a brief summary for quick revision during exams, MCQs, and additional/extra questions and answers of NBSE Class 10 Social Science Chapter 8 "Manufacturing Industries."
Introduction to the chapter Manufacturing Industries: Manufacturing is the process of mass-producing items with the use of machines. Manufacturing entails the transformation of raw materials into more valuable goods in big quantities. Manufacturing industry development is a metric for analysing a country's economic strength. It is also a critical tool for overcoming poverty.
- The manufacturing industries are widely regarded as the driving force behind overall development and economic development in particular. Our government's long-term objective is to promote manufacturing prosperity.
- Manufacturing industries allows India to make the best use of its resources, diversify its economy, enhance people's living standards, expand trade and commerce, and bring in much-needed foreign exchange.
- For production, all sectors need raw materials. The growth and diversification of a country's manufacturing industry, as well as the transformation of raw resources into a varied range of higher-value finished items, are essential to a country's success.
- Agro-based manufacturing industries have played a major role in India's development because it is an agrarian economy. India is a major producer of milk, sugarcane, tea, rice, wheat, fruits, and vegetables, as well as rice, wheat, fruits, and vegetables. These give raw ingredients for agro-based companies to expand. Agriculture and industry work hand in hand and are mutually beneficial. Both are reliant on one another for growth and existence.
The economy and industry of the country
India has achieved a high level of self-sufficiency in a wide range of basic and capital commodities since independence. However, throughout the last two decades, the manufacturing industries' proportion of GDP has remained stable at roughly 15% of GDP, out of a total of 27% for the industry, which includes 10% for quarrying, electricity, gas, and mining. When compared to some East Asian economies (25-35%), this is significantly lower.
- The desired growth rate for the next decade is 12%, while manufacturing has grown at a rate of roughly 7% per year on average over the prior decade. The annual growth rate in 2004 was 9-10%.
- Economists estimate that manufacturing will meet its aim over the next decade if supported by proper government policy interventions and renewed efforts by the industry to enhance productivity.
- The government established the National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) to provide a continuous forum for policy discourse in order to revitalise and sustain India's manufacturing industries.
Industries are located in certain areas
Locating an industry is a difficult task. Many factors influence the location of industries, including raw material availability, labour, capital, electricity, and market. Finding all of the elements in one place is really challenging. As a result, an industry is established or located in a location where the majority of the components are naturally present or can be obtained readily and at a fair cost.
- It has been observed that urbanisation and industrialisation are inextricably linked. This occurs in two situations: when an industry is established, people who become employed gravitate toward it. Establishment of a town with services such as a market, banking, transportation, labour, and so on. In this situation, urbanisation occurs as a result of industrial activity.
- The opposite scenario is when industries are established near cities. In this case, urbanisation is followed by industrial activity. Banking, insurance, transportation, and other industries benefit greatly from urban centres. As a result, many industries band together to establish an industrial agglomeration and make use of the many benefits that these urban centres have to offer, a phenomenon known as agglomeration economies.
The textile industry is the country's only self-sufficient and value-chain-complete industry. This implies it covers everything from basic materials to the highest-value-added items, such as clothes.
- It contributes nearly a quarter of all industrial output. Almost 35 million people are directly employed as a result of it. It accounts for around 24.6% of total foreign exchange earnings. It contributes 4% to the overall GDP.
The Harappans were among the first people in the world to use cotton clothing. India's cotton textile industry is one of the country's oldest. The first mill in the modern era was erected in Mumbai in 1854.
- India now has nearly 1946 textile factories that produce cotton and man-made fibres. The governmental and cooperative sectors account for nearly 20% of these, while the private sector accounts for the remaining 80%. There are also thousands of small firms that operate with four to ten looms.
- The cotton textile industry was first focused in Maharashtra and Gujarat, close to the cotton-growing area. The elements that contributed to the cotton textile industry's localization in this region, primarily around
- Other sectors, such as chemicals and dyes, packaging material, mill stores, and engineering works, benefit from the cotton industry's need. Farmers and cotton bale packers are inextricably related to the textile business. Ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring, and sewing are all part of the process.
- India sends yarn to Japan as well as cotton products to the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia, France, East European countries, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and Africa.
- The spinning industry has gotten a lot of attention since the mid-1980s. Only China, which ranks first, has more installed spindles than our country, which has roughly 43.13 million (as of 2011-2013).
- Our cotton industry has a significant flaw. It generates the best yarn, but our knitting and weaving facilities aren't equipped to handle the majority of the country's high-quality yarn.
After cotton, this is the second most important industry. In India, there are approximately 80 jute mills. The majority of these are found in West Bengal, along the banks of the Hugli River. West Bengal produces more than 80% of the jute items in the world. Andhra Pradesh produces roughly 80%, with the remaining 10% coming from Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Assam, and Tripura.
- In 2010-2011, the jute sector employed around 0.37 million people directly. In addition, jute and Mesta farming employs 4 million lakh small and marginal farmers.
- In 2005, the National Jute Policy was established. Its main goals were to raise productivity, improve quality, increase crop production, and ensure that jute producers received fair pricing.
- Synthetic replacements, which are readily available at lower prices, are now posing a serious threat to the Indian jute sector. Jute products from Bangladesh, Brazil, the Philippines, Egypt, and Thailand are also fierce competitors.
- The government's policy of requiring the use of jute packaging has boosted jute demand, at least in India.
- Demand is also being boosted by the introduction of a variety of additional jute-based products.
- Concern for environmental preservation is another aspect that has enhanced the relevance of jute. India's jute products are primarily purchased in the United States, Canada, Russia, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Australia.
Sugar is India's second-largest agricultural export. However, it is the leading producer of khandsari and gur. Sugar farming is predicted to be the source of income for 34 million Indian farmers and their families.
- The sugar season in India spans from October to September. Because output is limited to 110-220 days per year, this sector is seasonal. The cooperative sector is well-suited to this industry.
- Farmers were involved in the sugar industry from the beginning, and factories were never viewed as merely sugarcane processing machines, but rather as vehicles for the socioeconomic, educational, and cultural development of the entire area surrounding the sugar plant.
- The industry utilises heavy and cumbersome raw materials to transport. There is another disadvantage to this sector: the sucrose content of sugarcane depletes when transported across long distances. As a result, sugar companies must be located near sugarcane-growing regions.
- This business, too, has obstacles, the most significant of which are transportation delays, which cause the sucrose content of the cane to deplete; antiquated, obsolete, and inefficient methods of production; the industry's seasonal nature; and the need to maximise the use of luggage.
Iron and steel industry
Because all other industries rely on it for their machinery, the iron and steel industry is known as the basic industry. This business is classified as a heavy industry because the raw materials utilised are heavy and bulky, necessitating a significant investment in transportation.
- The iron and steel industry are generally located near places where raw materials can be sourced or obtained. Because the completed commodities are heavy and transportation is challenging, this industry requires an effective transportation system.
- The majority of integrated iron and steel factories are located in mineral-rich areas in the northeastern and southern parts of the Indian peninsula. The Vishakhapatnam Steel Plant is an exception.
- A concentration of iron and steel factories may be found on the Chhotanagpur plateau. The proximity of raw materials, the availability of inexpensive labour, the low cost of raw materials such as iron ore, and a developing domestic market are the reasons for this.
- Poor infrastructure, intermittent energy supply, unskilled labour with low productivity, restricted supply of raw materials, particularly coking coal, and high raw material costs are among the issues that the iron and steel sector faces today.
Aluminium has been popular as steel, zinc, copper, and lead alternative. It's used to make planes, wire, and kitchen utensils. This metal has a lot of positive characteristics. It's light, corrosion-resistant, malleable, and a good heat conductor, and it gains strength when mixed with other metals.
- In India, aluminium smelting is the second most important industry in the metallurgical sector.
- The raw material used in smelters to extract alumina and later aluminium is bauxite. The availability of low-cost bauxite and a reliable and economical supply of energy determine the industry's location.
The chemical industry in India plays a significant role in the country's economy. In both the inorganic and organic sectors, it is the oldest, most varied, and fastest-growing industry. Organic chemical industries are concentrated around oil refineries and petrochemical factories, but inorganic chemical businesses are widely dispersed.
- Chemical industries are their own consumers, which is an intriguing reality to consider. Basic chemicals are transformed into compounds that are employed in agriculture, industry, or the consumer market.
- Cosmetics and toiletries, as well as plastics and insecticides, are among the many commercial items produced by the chemical industry today.
Chemical fertilisers were critical to India's Green Revolution achievement and subsequent self-sufficiency in food grain production. The increased use of fertiliser has made a substantial contribution to the country's long-term food grain output.
- Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, and Kerala, which are key contributors, have seen the industry expand as a result of the Green Revolution.
The cement industry has outpaced itself, increasing production capacity, attracting the top cement companies in the world, and initiating mergers and acquisitions to increase growth, driven by a booming housing sector, global demand, and increased activity in infrastructure development such as state and national highways.
- After China, India is the world's second-largest cement manufacturer. Construction activities necessitate the use of cement. Factory buildings, roads, bridges, railway stations, airports, and commercial and residential complexes all require it.
- This industry necessitates bulky and heavy raw materials like silica, alumina, limestone, and a well-connected gypsum network. Other prerequisites include coal, electricity, and a well-developed rail network.
The automobile sector, one of India's most important businesses, has grown dramatically during the previous two decades. Liberalization brought in a new era of modern and innovative models, which boosted market demand for automobiles.
- India now has 15 passenger car and multi-utility vehicle manufacturers, 9 commercial vehicle manufacturers, and 14 two- and three-wheeler manufacturers. Delhi, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Bengaluru, and Jamshedpur all have factories.
Information technology and electronics industry
The information technology and electronics industries are based on a worldwide scale. Products are conceived in one country, manufactured in another, and then sold globally. Transistors, television sets, computers, radars, cellular telecoms pagers, telephones, and other equipment, such as that used in post and telegraph offices, are all part of the business.
- Bengaluru, widely known as India's "Silicon Valley," has emerged as the country's electronic centre.
- Hyderabad, Delhi, Pune, Lucknow, Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai, and Coimbatore are among the upcoming cities. These provide software specialists with a single point of contact and high-speed data transfer.
- This industry has been a major foreign exchange earner in the last two or three years due to its rapidly increasing Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) sector. This exemplifies the success of India's IT industry, which has experienced extraordinary growth in a short period of time.
Economic development and environmental protection or preservation must go hand in hand for sustainable development to occur.
- Harmony between man and environment is the essence of a healthy life and growth. Many power-generating companies in India have implemented this principle.
- NTPC is one of India's most important power companies. It is motivated by a commitment to long-term electricity expansion and has taken a proactive approach to conservation and preservation. It has made an attempt to reduce the environmental impact of power plant construction while also protecting natural ecology.
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) of Manufacturing Industries: Textual/exercise
1. Manufacturing is the process of
Answer: (a) producing goods in large quantities.
2. Which of the following developments usually follows the industrial activity?
Answer: (b) Urbanisation
3. Which of the following is not a factor of product
Answer: (d) infrastructure
4. Which of the following industries is in the private sector?
Answer: (a) Dabur
5. Oil India Limited (OIL) belongs to which of the following types of industries?
Answer: (c) Joint sector
6. Which of the following industries belong to the category of heavy industries?
Answer: (b) Shipbuilding
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) of Manufacturing Industries: Extras
1. Which of these is the oldest industry in India?
a. The automobile industry
b. Cement industry
c. Cotton industry
d. Jute textile industry
Answer: C. Cotton industry
2. The first jute mill in India was established in
Answer: A. 1859
3. The first steel plant in India was first set up in
Answer: D. 1870
4. Which of the following is a secondary method
Answer: A. Biological
5. Which of the following is a heavy industry?
a. Electrical industry
d. Textile industry
Answer: B. Shipbuilding
For book questions and extra questions/answers, visit onlinefreenotes.com
Chapter 1: Rise of Nationalism in Europe
Chapter 2: Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Chapter 4: Trade and Globalisation
Chapter 5: Resources
Chapter 6: Power Resources
Chapter 7: Agriculture
Chapter 8: Manufacturing Industries