This article gives a brief summary for quick revision during exams and MCQs of NBSE Class 10 Social Science Chapter 9 "Transport and Communication."
Introduction to the chapter Transport and Communication: For a long time, trade and transportation were constrained by geographical and temporal constraints. However, as knowledge and technology progressed, trade and transportation extended around the globe.
- Distances have become immaterial, or, more precisely, distances appear to have reduced, since the world has become one huge village. This is due to the creation of a quick and effective transportation and communication system. As a result, trade, transportation, and communication are mutually beneficial.
- The earth has three major domains: air, water, and land, all of which may be used to transport products and services. Transport is defined as a system that transports individuals and things from one location to another.
India currently boasts one of the world's largest road networks. Roads have been acknowledged as important in India since ancient times.
- Early cart tracks, which can still be found in many places of the world, evolved into roads.
- Today, India's road network totals over 2.3 million kilometres. According to their importance, these highways can be classified into six major types.
Golden quadrilateral superhighways
The Government of India is developing a road network that connects Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, and Mumbai. The Super Highway has six lanes. The road is 5,846 kilometres long in all. The National Highway Authority of India is in charge of the project.
- This will connect numerous large cities and ports while also promoting industrial growth in all of the minor villages along the way.
- It will also create numerous chances for agricultural produce delivery from the hinterland to major cities and ports for export, as well as work opportunities during construction.
- Furthermore, it will increase demand for cement, steel, and other building materials. These Super Highways will shorten the time and distance between India's megacities.
- This project includes the North-South corridor connecting Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu), as well as the East-West corridor connecting Silchar (Assam) and Porbandar (Gujarat).
National highways connect states and are of national significance. These highways connect the country's most remote areas. They account for only 2% of overall road networks yet transport 40% of total road traffic. These routes span enormous distances and, in some cases, traverse through congested cities.
- They have quite narrow bridges and culverts in several areas. The Central Public Works Department constructs and maintains these road systems, which are also known as primary road systems.
- The majority of these National Highways go north-south and east-west. The historic Sher Shah Suri Marg connects Delhi and Amritsar via National Highway No. I.
These highways connect state capitals with towns and district headquarters, as well as providing access to national highways. These are built and maintained by the State Public Works Department (PWD) in the respective state or union territory.
These roads connect the district headquarters to other districts and serve as a link between the district and state roads. The Zila Parishads are in charge of maintaining these roads.
This category includes village or rural roads that connect rural areas and villages to towns. Special provisions have been made under the "Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana" to ensure that every village in the country is connected to a major town by a motorable road that can be used in all seasons.
These are roads that can be found along our country's borders. The Border Roads Organisation (BRO), which reports directly to the Central Government, constructs and maintains these roads. The BRO was founded in 1960 to develop roads along the country's northern and north-eastern borders.
The Indian Railways is the country's largest public-sector enterprise. The railways are considered the main artery of inland transport in India, as well as the primary mode of transport for freight and passengers.
- The railways facilitate large-scale and long-distance movements of people and goods. Railways were first introduced in India in 1853, with the first train travelling 34 kilometres from Mumbai to Thane. They had grown to 42 rail systems by 1947, the year India gained independence.
- The system was nationalised as a single unit in 1951, becoming one of the world's largest networks.
- Indian Railways has been divided into 17 zones for administrative purposes.
This is a new mode of transportation to our list. Pipelines have previously been used to transport water to various locations. Pipelines are now used to transport crude oil, petroleum products, and natural gas from oil and gas fields to refineries, fertiliser plants, and large thermal power plants.
Inland waterways are the oldest and least expensive mode of transportation. This mode of transportation includes riverboats, rafts, and canoes.
- India now has a total length of 14,500 km of navigable inland waterways. Mechanised boats can navigate 5,685 km of these.
- The majority of India's trade with foreign countries is conducted through ports located along the coast. Along its 7,516-kilometer coastline, there are 12 major ports and 187 minor or intermediate ports.
Although it is the most expensive mode of transportation, air travel is the fastest. Airways are the best mode of transportation for inaccessible, remote, and hostile areas. During natural and man-made disasters, airways have been critical.
- This mode of transportation can easily traverse difficult terrains, dense forests, desolate deserts, large rivers, and even large oceanic stretches.
- Despite the fact that air travel is more expensive than other modes of transportation, special provisions are made to extend services to the general public only in the northeast.
- Private operators operated air transport at the time of independence. It was declared a national holiday in 1953. Following liberalisation, the private sector was allowed to enter this field.
Humans have used various modes of communication since their inception on the planet. These definitions evolved with the times. In recent years, the rate of change has been extremely rapid. Personal communication and mass communication are two types of communication.
- Personal communication is defined as postal written communications. The Indian postal network handles such communications. The postal network in India is the world's largest.
- The Indian postal network has 1.5 lakh post offices across the country, with 89 per cent located in rural areas and the remainder in urban areas.
- India has one of Asia's largest telecom networks. It is the fifth-largest city in the world. In India, there are approximately 37,565 telephone exchanges located throughout the country.
- In the 1990s, India's telecommunications system was opened up to private companies. The country is divided into multiple zones, known as circles, that run roughly along state lines.
- Television, radio, newspapers, magazines, books, and even films are all forms of mass communication. It is so named because it can directly communicate ideas, policies, and national issues to the masses. This contributes to raising public awareness.
- The All India Radio, also known as Akashwani, is a powerful mass medium. It airs programmes in national, regional, and local languages for people of all ages and from all regions. All India Radio operates 200 radio stations and 327 transmitters.
- India has a large number of dailies and periodicals published in various languages from various cities. Newspapers are published in over 100 different languages and dialects.
- India is Asia's commercial film production centre. It makes short films, feature films, and video shorts. The Central Board of Film Certification is the organisation in charge of certifying both Indian and foreign films.
I. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs): Exercise
1. India has one of the largest networks of which of the following modes of transport.
Answer: (a) Roadways
2. Which of the following modes of transport would you find in higher areas of mountainous regions like the Himalayas?
Answer: (d) Airways
3. Which of the following are the primary road systems of our country?
Answer: (a) National Highways
4. Which of the following types of roads received special impetus under the pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana?
Answer: (c) Rural roads
5. Which of the following modes of transport is fuel-efficient and environment-friendly?
Answer: (d) waterways
6. Which of the following was the first port to be developed soon after independence?
Answer: (d) Kandla
7. Which of the following airlines is the national carrier of India?
Answer: (a) Air India
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs): Extras
1. The BRO was established in
Answer: A. 1960
2. In India, the railway was first introduced in
Answer: C. 1853
3. Which of the following is the oldest means of transport?
B. Inland waterways
Answer: B. Inland waterways
4. The airways was nationalized in the year
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Chapter 1: Rise of Nationalism in Europe
Chapter 2: Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
Chapter 4: Trade and Globalisation
Chapter 5: Resources
Chapter 6: Power Resources
Chapter 7: Agriculture
Chapter 8: Manufacturing Industries
Chapter 9: Transport and Communication