Resources: NBSE Class 10 Social Science Ch 5 Summary, MCQs, Extras

NBSE Class 10 Resources
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This article gives a brief summary for revision, MCQs (Multiple Choice Questions), and extras of the chapter "Resources" which is the fifth chapter of Social Science of Class 10 under the Nagaland Board of School Education (NBSE).

INTRODUCTION TO CHAPTER: A resource is anything on the planet that is useful and necessary for man's survival. Resources are both natural and man-made substances that can meet human needs and satisfy human desires. Technologically accessible, financially viable, and culturally acceptable resources are required. As a result, the transformation of things in our environment involves an interdependent relationship between nature, humans, and technology. The origin, ownership, exhaustibility, and stage of development of resources are all classified.

Conservation of resources

Having enough resources is essential for both survival and growth. However, overexploitation and unplanned consumption are to blame for resource depletion. Social, economic and environmental impacts resulting from this decision.

  • Conservation of resources can help solve these problems by managing and saving resources for a brighter tomorrow. Conscious resource management refers to making the most of what is available now without compromising the future.
  • In order to conserve resources, it is important to use them in a responsible manner.

Need for resource planning

It's called resource planning when it comes to balancing resources. There are regions that are rich in certain resources, but insufficient in other ones, while other regions are self-sufficient in terms of resource availability. A severe shortage of critical resources is plaguing some parts of the world.

  • Because of this, resource planning at the national, state, regional, and local levels needs to be balanced and coordinated. Indien's efforts to achieve resource planning goals have been well-documented since the launch of the Five-Year Plans after independence.
  • The development of any region is dependent on the availability of resources, appropriate technical skills, and an institutional framework, among other factors. In the absence of either, there can be no progress in any field. Many regions in India are rich in natural resources, but they are economically backwards as a result of this.

Land resources and their pattern in India

For all nations, the land is of paramount importance. You must use it with caution because it is a limited resource. It's also important to carefully plan land use. There are mountains, plateaus and plains in India, which is a large country with a diverse physical landscape.
  • There are both physical and human factors that influence the land use pattern of any given area. When it comes to physical elements like topography and soil types, human factors like population density, technological capability, and cultural traditions are some of the most important.
  • There is no doubt that the amount of land dedicated to permanent pastures and tree crops has decreased in recent years. Decreased grassland areas can have serious consequences for cattle feeding because it becomes more challenging if pastureland is reduced.
  • The forested area has increased slightly. Currently, fallow lands are only cultivated once or twice every two to three years because they are of poor quality or the cultivation costs are prohibitively high.
  • According to the National Forest Policy (1952), a country's desired forest area must account for 33 per cent of its geographical area in order to be considered sustainable. This was necessary in order to maintain ecological equilibrium. Forest cover is currently at 23 per cent, which is far below the desired percentage.
  • For the millions of people who live on the edges of forests and depend on them for a living, this is problematic. Rocky, arid, or deserted areas are referred to as wasteland areas. Non-agricultural land includes settlements, roads, railways, industries, etc.

Soil resources

Soil is the earth's crust's uppermost layer, where plants grow. In this definition, soil is defined as a basic agricultural resource. This is due to the fact that all agricultural activities, including animal husbandry, are dependent on soil.
  • As a living system and renewable natural resource, the soil is a vital part of the ecosystem. It takes nearly a million years for a few centimetres of soil to form.
  • There are two types of soil components: inorganic and organic. Plant and animal organic matter in soil includes both living and dead plant and animal matter.
  • The organic material formed by the decomposition of dead animals and plant matter is known as humus. The most common inorganic substance is weathered rock material.
  • Time, climate, parent rock or bedrock, vegetation, and other forms of life are all important factors in soil formation. Erosion agents such as running water, glaciers, wind, and temperature change supplement these. Chemical and organic changes also have an impact on soil formation.

Water resources

No living thing can exist without water. In our daily lives, we require water to drink, cook, clean, and so on. Water is also required in factories; in fact, hydel power plants are used to power factories.
  • Freshwater is defined as water obtained from surface runoff and groundwater that is constantly renewed and recharged by the hydrological cycle. All water, it is obvious, flows through the hydrological cycle, ensuring that it is a renewable resource.
  • Water scarcity occurs in areas with low precipitation or that are prone to droughts. Variations in seasonal and annual precipitation can affect water availability over time and space. Water scarcity, on the other hand, is caused by factors other than scarcity. Water scarcity is exacerbated by excessive use, overutilization, and even unequal access to water among various social groups.

Minerals

A mineral is a solid that occurs naturally and has a distinct crystal structure and chemical composition. Minerals are found all over the earth's crust and are mined for a variety of purposes, including construction, the manufacture of various products, and as a fuel source.
  • Although over 2000 minerals have been identified, only a few are found in the majority of rocks. Because most minerals in India are nationalised, extraction is only possible with the government's permission.
  • In northeast India, minerals, on the other hand, are either individual or community property. Small-scale operations dominate mining, particularly coal mining.
  • Minerals, oil, and coal are examples of nonrenewable resources that are particularly complex today. Mineral deposits, which constitute a negligible portion of the crust, are found in the earth's crust. This equates to less than 1% of the earth's crust. Despite the fact that these mineral resources take millions of years to create and concentrate, we are consuming them at an alarming rate. The supply is running low. In addition, the use of fossil fuels has caused significant environmental damage.
  • We must remember that these resources are limited. Because these minerals must be mined from greater depths each time, mining these ores will quickly become difficult and costly. This increases the length and cost of mining, and once these resources are depleted, they cannot be replenished.

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs): Exercise

1. ‘Globalisation’ today mainly refers to:

Answer: (c) An economic system that has emerged in the last 50 years

2. The decision-making in the IMF and the World Bank is controlled by:

Answer: (a) All the member-nations of these two banks.

3. Multinational Corporations (MNC’s) are

Answer: (b) Large companies that operate in several countries at the same time

4. The IMF was established on

Answer: (a) December 27, 1945

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs): Extras

1. Iron-ore is a type of which of the following resources?
(abiotic, biotic, renewable, non-recyclable)

Answer: Abiotic

2. Which of the following resources are examples of fossil fuels?
(Non-renewable, biological, non-exhaustible, flow)

Answer: Non-renewable

3. Which of the following is not a recyclable resource?
(steel, paper, gold, silver)

Answer: Coal

4. Which of the following are you most likely to associate with water scarcity?
(Ganga plains, Deccan plateaus, Deserts, Coastal plains)

Answer:  Deserts of Rajasthan

5. Apart from iron, which of the following minerals is an important raw material in the iron and steel industry?
(Mica, Sodium, Aluminium, Manganese)

Answer: Manganese

Extras/additional questions and answers

1. With the help of examples, distinguish between potential resource and stock.

Answer: Potential resources are resources that exist in a region but are underutilised. For example, Rajasthan and Gujarat have significant wind and solar energy potential, but it has not been fully developed.

Stock resources, on the other hand, are reserves that can be used to meet human needs. However, humans lack the technological know-how to access and utilise such resources. These resources are regarded as stock, for example, water is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen, but the technical procedure for using these to produce water for human consumption is still unavailable.

2. List the problems caused by humans' indiscriminate use of resources.

Answer: The following are the major issues caused by humans' indiscriminate use of resources:

  • Depletion of resources to satisfy the greed of a few people
  • Accumulation of resources in a few hands, which divides society.
3. Analyze the four major factors that contribute to soil formation.

Answer: Topography or relief, time, climate, parent rock or bed rock, vegetation, and other forms of life are all powerful factors in soil formation. These are supplemented by erosional agents such as running water, glaciers, wind, and temperature change. Soil formation is also influenced by chemical and organic changes.

4. Irrigation has a negative impact? How does irrigation affect the social landscape?

Answer: It has a negative impact on the quantity and quality of soil and water. Many farmers have shifted to water-intensive and commercial crops as a result of irrigation facilities. Despite low rainfall, Punjab, for example, has become a major producer of rice.

The impact on the social landscape is that this transformation has widened the gap between the rich and the poor. The rich and powerful, who can afford higher inputs, have become even richer, while the poor have been unable to benefit due to a lack of capital.

5. What are International Resources?

Answer: International institutions own some resources. Without the permission of international institutions, no individual country may use oceanic resources beyond 200 kilometres of exclusive economic zone, which belongs to the open ocean. For example, India can mine manganese nodules from the Indian Ocean's bed if they are discovered beyond the exclusive economic zone because it has obtained the right to do so from an international institution.

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